Tourist Mobility and Advanced Tracking Technologies (Routledge Advances in Tourism)

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Applying business intelligence for knowledge generation in tourism destinations : - A case study from Sweden. In Tourism and Leisure : Current issues and perspectives of development. Springer Gabler. Tourism Knowledge Destination. In Encyclopedia of Business Analytics and Optimization.

Determinants of the co-created destination experience : an empirical validation from Sweden. Newcastle : Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Destination brand equity modelling and measurement — a summer tourism case from Sweden. In Strategic Marketing in Tourism Services. Sidali, K. Surrey : Ashgate. E-Business horizons in the tourism industry - Challenges for research and practice. Berlin : Springer.

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London : Transaction Publishers. Zur Interdependenz von Markt- und Ressourcenansatz : Tourismusmanagement zwischen gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung und dem Diktat des Marktes. Destinationsbenchmarking : Theoretische und methodologische Fragestellungen. Renningen : Expert Verlag.

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Die Aus- und Weiterbildungsproblematik im Tourismus. In Current State of Economic Science. Rohtak, India : Maharshi Dayanand University. Smeral, E. Innsbruck : University of Innsbruck. Aesthetical, ethical and psychological dimensions of creativity : Implications for destination development and tourism entrepreneurship. In Destination Dynamics : Abstract book.. Mobile apps as nature-based tourism experience facilitator : A conceptual framework. Search engine traffic as input for predicting tourist arrivals.

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Customer based brand equity modelling for big data analytics in tourism destinations : a case from Sweden. In The t-Forum Global conference : Tourism intelligence in action. Fulfilment of destination brand promise : the core of customer-based brand equity modelling for tourism destinations. Kolas, N. Information gathering by ubiquitous services for CRM in tourism destinations : an explorative study from Sweden. Meyer, V. Integration of data mining results into multi-dimensional data models. Lexhagen, M. Gallen, Switzerland, June Schmunk, S.

Sentiment analysis: Extracting decision-relevant knowledge from UGC. In The values of tourism. Multi-dimensional data modelling for a tourism destination data warehouse. Vilamoura - Portugal :. Classification of customer Reviews based on Sentiment Analysis. Vienna :. Destination talk in social media: a content analysis for innovation. Digitalizing Loyalty Cards in Tourism. Multi-criteria ratings for recommender systems : An empirical analysis in the tourism domain. Kuttainen, C. Social media monitoring and analysis in tourism.

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A customer-based brand equity model for tourism destinations : — insights from service marketing. Determinants of the co-created destination experience: an empirical validation from Sweden. In Transforming experiences: tourism marketing from both sides of the counter. Exploiting Feedback from Users of Innsbruck mobile for Personalization.

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On the usefulness of Data Envelopment Analysis for strategy development : a tourism destination case study. In Data Envelopment Analysis and performance management. Birmingham :. Efficiency Benchmarking : Lessons to be learnt for Entrepreneurship Research. Bangkok, Thailand :. Effizienzbenchmarking in touristischen Destinationen. Limits and Possibilities of Tourist Satisfaction Research.

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In Efficiency and Productivity Analysis in the 21st Century.. In Rethinking of Education and Training for Tourism. Zagreb :. Cross-border Franchising - Facts or Fancy? These five factors are analyzed in detail in Activity 4. The important point to note is that they are mutually reinforcing. That is, rapid advances in information technology and computerisation, for example, have reduced the time and costs of global communications, thus reinforcing the effects of these economic factors. Faster, easier and cheaper communications have enabled the rapid transfer of huge amounts of money electronically and the organisation of production on a multi-continental scale.

For example, the typical family car now contains parts from all over the world.


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Source: Ranson, D. See an animated film of the globalized supply chains involved in the manufacture of televisions, including case studies from Ethiopia, Turkey, China, India and Mexico. Please click here. Economic globalisation is a pervasive part of our daily lives — but globalization is more than just economics. There are many other examples and forms of globalisation, and evidence is found in all aspects of daily life, just as we saw in the story, Good Morning World!

What sort of evidence would convince you that globalisation is a pervasive part of daily life? Select six types of evidence for detailed analysis. Globalisation is a process in which the people and countries of the world are being brought closer and closer together, economically and culturally, through trade, information technology, travel, cultural exchanges, the mass media and mass entertainment. The impacts of these have been so rapid that they are the focus of much academic and popular writing. The journalist and author, Thomas Friedman, is one of the most well-known popular writer on globalisation.

Source: Held, D. Stiglitz defines globalisation as:. Source: Stiglitz, J. A number of scholars argue that these definitions are too narrow as they do not emphasise the many different aspects of globalisation. For example, the University of California Atlas of World Inequality argues that we need to recognize at least four dimensions:. These different dimensions of globalisation often need to be studied separately in order to provide a detailed analysis. However, they are closely interlinked and have many interconnections and a full picture of each one must include its relationships with the others.

Indeed, Joseph Stiglitz and Thomas Friedman, two of the main writers about economic globalisation have, also written extensively about the relationship between globalisation and climate change. Q Identify an example of each of the four dimensions of globalisation in Good Morning World! Also provide an additional example of each one from another aspect of your life. We saw in the previous activity that globalisation works through many interconnected means. Some examples of the drivers behind globalisation that were identified included: the promotion of free trade, multinational corporations, transport, the media and communications technologies, and consumerism.

Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign markets, large corporations are able to source their raw materials from many different countries and establish factories and sales outlets all over the world. More recently, China and India are becoming strong supporters of free trade as their economies start to dominate global markets. This defining feature of globalisation is underpinned by a politico-economic philosophy known as neo-liberalism. Neo-liberal trade policies are intended to encourage free trade but many people, especially in developing countries, argue that it has not produced fair trade.

Read more …. Where did the ideas behind your position come from? It might seem impossible or, at least impractical, but every week four-wheel-drive trucks made in Japan bring crates of Coca-Cola to a remote Mayan community in the Yucatan of Mexico when the community lacks running water and electricity in their community. The same thing happens in villages in many parts of Africa and Asia. One explanation is that carbonated soft drinks are very profitable to sell but water is not.

This was explained in the module on Consumption. Two processes lie behind this paradox. The first includes the neo-liberal trade and economic policies we saw in the previous section. Neo-liberal policies favour private enterprise and discourage government investment in the sorts of social infrastructure that support education, health, public transport, housing and housing that contribute to social well-being.

The second is the ever-increasing influence of multinational corporations. A multinational corporation MNC is a large company engaged in international production and sales. The largest MNCs have raw materials extraction and production sites in many different countries, even often manufacturing different components of a product in different countries where it has a cost advantage.

A growing amount of what we consume is produced from outside our own countries by MNCs whose purpose is to make a profit for their owners and shareholders. Many of these companies have active corporate social responsibility programmes to assist the communities where they operate. Nevertheless, of the largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs.

Sometimes MNCs are so large that they transcend national boundaries in their operations and are know as transnational corporations TNCs. As a result, MNCs have the potential to strongly influence international trade and investment laws so that they can meet their need to make a profit. Technology has been another principal driver of globalisation.

Advances in transport and information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Developments in containerisation and bulk carrier shipping have enabled rapid and cost-effective transport while innovations in logistics and air-freight means that many goods — from African flowers to Chinese-made computers — can arrive in markets over-night.

However, it is the rapid improvements in information and communication technologies that have provided some of the strongest drivers of globalisation in recent years. The global Internet and its associated capacity for financial transfers have provided companies with valuable new tools for:. Read more on the role of the Internet and globalisation.

The rise of the Internet is only one of the many manifestations of globalisation and communication technologies. The mass media have and are having a major impact on linking people and ideas around the world — from newspapers, radio and television, to Hollywood and Bollywood movies through to the Internet, Google, Web 2. And, in so doing, the lived experience of globalisation and the mental and cultural models of the world it creates serve to further encourage even greater globalisation of the economy, culture and politics.

Globalisation

This can be an enriching process for many people, opening their minds to new ideas and experiences, and strengthening the universal values in a global culture of peace and understanding. However, some commentators have noticed that the concentration of major entertainment and advertising industries in the United States as contributing to the decreasing diversity of global cultures. Around the world, these brands are identified with the United States and represent its dominance around the globe.

Coca-Cola, Disney and McDonalds have myriad sales outlets, hundreds of country web sites and billions of dollars to spend on advertising, thus spreading Western ways worldwide. Among the many results of this process are the loss of local cultural difference and the decline of world languages and the cultural experiences they contain.

One of the major dimensions of the mental models created by globalisation has been the commodification — or commercialisation — of daily life. As a result, one part of the cultural impact of globalisation has been to create a global consumer culture. This aspect of cultural globalisation was analysed in Module 9. The important point to note about consumerism is that it is both an effect and cause of on-going globalisation. Itself a product of the media, new communication technologies and the resultant normalisation of Western ways of life, consumerism drives global demand for new and more products which, in its turn, drives the sales of products of multinational corporations and entrenches economic globalization.

In this way the driving forces of globalisation become self-reinforcing. Q Draw a diagram to illustrate the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation. Each company also operates in a variety of fields beyond recorded music, including film making and distribution, publishing, electronics and telecommunications.

This extends their influence to cover more markets within the global entertainment industry. Research the global music industry further. Q Explain how the global music industry illustrates the free trade, MNC, communications and consumer drivers of globalisation. Scholars have interpreted the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation in a number of ways. As a result, a number of different theories of globalisation has been proposed.

Globalisation is experienced in many different ways in many parts of the world, and there are many different opinions about it. More …. Review how globalisation is viewed in your country or a part of the world near, or like, yours. Globalisation has many strong advocates and many critics. Assessments of globalisation therefore depend on whose perspective is being expressed, their experience of globalisation, and its impact on their lives.

Such perspectives also depend upon whether or not the economic status, government, access to telecommunications, etc. Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are relatively similar? Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are very different?

Review the principles that you could follow when teaching about a controversial issue such as globalisation, and compare them with the views of other teachers. Supporters of globalisation point to many improvements in standards of living around the world.

Examples include:. However, critics argue that some of these improvements may not be due to globalisation but to national policies on education and land reform, for example. Others argue that these improvements may have been possible without the current form of globalisation and its negative consequences. The role of the Commission was to investigate the needs of people faced with the unprecedented changes that globalisation is bringing to their lives, their families, work places and communities. The Commission looked at the various dimensions of globalisation, the diversity of public perceptions of the process, and its implications for economic and social development.

The Report acknowledged the benefits of globalisation but concluded that the inadequate regulation of globalization at national and international levels i. The negative results of these policies, it argues, is due to the fact that financial and economic priorities of free trade have consistently predominated over social ones, including measures to support international human rights and the principles of international solidarity. The dire results of this have been seen in the impacts of the global financial crisis of , which has increased prices for food in the most vulnerable people around the world.

The United Nations World Food Programme has investigated food security will be affected by the global financial crisis by conducting case studies in five countries — Armenia, Bangladesh, Ghana, Nicaragua and Zambia. The case study countries were especially selected to enable the findings to be generalised to other countries with similar socio-economic conditions. The major findings include:. The report found that families in these countries had to develop several strategies to cope with the global financial crisis.

This included:. However, this is leading to higher malnutrition among children. Women are working longer hours and, therefore, have less time to take care of their children — and child labour is increasing. Q Compare and contrast the impacts of the global financial crisis on food security and health in your country and one of those studied by the World Food Programme.

A report by the World Bank predicted that global GDP will decline for the first time since World War II as a result of the failure of governments to regulate financial institutions and globalisation properly. The report also highlighted that the number of people living in poverty ie. The global financial crisis is also a major setback to progress on the Millennium Development Goals. For example, when poor households withdraw their children from school, there is a significant risk that they will not return once the crisis is over, or that they will not be able to learn what they have missed from months or years of poor or no school attendance.

The World Bank also warns that infant deaths in developing countries may be , — , per year higher on average between and the MDG target year of than they would have been if the global financial crisis did not occur. Source: Donnelly, C. Q What do you believe should be done to address the slow progress on towards achieving the MDGs? This has greatly increased the voice of the emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India and China sometimes known as the BRICs and led to agreements to expand the membership of the boards of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

The G20 meeting in September agreed to a set of key principles or core values as fundamental to strong, sustainable and balanced economic activities. These include:. Q Consider the likely impacts of these principles. Identify i the two you believe to be most beneficial to the poorest people in the world and ii the two that might be least beneficial. Explain the reasons for your selections. The prospects of globalisation has also been called into question by the fact that many governments have also established economic stimulus programs meant to accelerate national productivity, undermining imports and export-oriented growth.

As a result,. Source: Bello, W. A danger point will come if firms decide that this way of organising production has had its day. Q How seriously do you believe the drivers of globalisation will be undermined by these developments? The pillars are:. Q Consider the likely impacts of these pillars of deglobalisation. Completing the module: Look back through the activities and tasks to check that you have done them all and to change any that you think you can improve now that you have come to the end of the module. The themes analysed at the conferences have included:.

Three questions in Activity 1 were marked for reconsideration at the end of this module. These were Questions 2, 3 and 4. In the light of the ideas you have studied in this module, answer these questions once again. Q From Q2 Many people see globalisation as something to do with international finance and trade, multinational companies the Internet, Hollywood and Bollywood movies and other threats to local identity and culture. In the light of what you now know about globalisation, what rationale would you give for including global perspectives in the curriculum?

David Hicks was the author of the module on Futures Education. The aim of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is promote and improve the integration of Education for Sustainable Development into the educational strategies and action plans at all levels and sectors of education in all countries. It contains hours divided into 27 modules of professional development for use in pre-service teacher courses as well as the in-service education of teachers, curriculum developers, education policy makers, and authors of educational materials. All Rights Reserved.

Globalisation Introduction Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Reflection Introduction If climate change is the key process in the natural world impacting on sustainable development, then globalisation is the parallel process in the human world, creating both opportunities for, and barriers to, sustainable development. Many of these impacts are beneficial, but Jimmy Carter, a former President of the USA, has pointed out that many people are missing out on these benefits: Globalisation, as defined by rich people like us, is a very nice thing… you are talking about the Internet, you are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers.

Growing Connections Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Good morning world! A child born today will be faced as an adult, almost daily, with problems of a global interdependent nature, be it peace, food, the quality of life, inflation, or scarcity of resources. Why was I not better educated? Why did my teachers not tell me about these problems and indicate my behaviour as a member of an interdependent human race?

They must inform them of the action, the endeavour, and the recommendations of their global organisations … and prepare their young people to assume responsibility for the consequences of their actions and help in the care of several billion more fellow humans on Earth. Circles and Systems Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Beyond the garden in summer there were fields of oats and barley and wheat which sighed and rustled when the wind blew, and which filled the air with pollen and heavy earth scents.

The fields were flat and stretched away to a distant line of trees on the horizon.

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To the children at that time those trees marked the boundary of their world. Beyond their world enclosed by trees there was, they were told, a wider world where there were hamlets similar to their own, and towns, and cities, and the sea, and beyond the sea other countries where people spoke languages different from their own.

Their father had told them so. But for the children, in their small world bounded by the trees, this wider world was but an idea, unrealized. Whereas everything within their own world was more than life-size, and more richly coloured. Economic interdependence is an essential concept in geography. Ecological interdependence is fundamental in biology and chemistry. Political interdependence is central in all studies of causation in history. Cultural interdependence, involving fusion, cross-over and mutual influences and borrowings, is a recurring feature in art, design, drama, literature, music and technology.

What is globalisation? Drivers of globalisation We saw in the previous activity that globalisation works through many interconnected means. Multinational Corporations It might seem impossible or, at least impractical, but every week four-wheel-drive trucks made in Japan bring crates of Coca-Cola to a remote Mayan community in the Yucatan of Mexico when the community lacks running water and electricity in their community.

Q How can this be? Read more … Sometimes MNCs are so large that they transcend national boundaries in their operations and are know as transnational corporations TNCs. Evaluating globalisation Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Ban-Ki Moon Secretary-General of the United Nations The last two years have witnessed a cascade of interconnected crises: financial panic, rising food and oil prices, climate shocks, a flu pandemic, and more.

Political cooperation to address these problems is not a mere nicety. It has become a global necessity. The intensity of global interconnectedness is stunning.



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